Ir. Habibie Razak, P.Eng., ASEAN Engineer, MM – Project Manager Black & Veatch International, Vice Chairman Energy & Electricity, The Institution of Engineers, Indonesia (PII)
Indonesia is the second largest coal exporter in the world after Australia. Coal is abundant spreading over major islands such as Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. Indonesian coal deposit is more than 21 Billion Ton (2011; Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources). Total coal resources is 105,187.44 Tons throughout Indonesia (2011; Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources). It is estimated over 50% of total coal deposits are categorized as low-rank coal.
Most of exported coals are used for steel manufacturing and power plant fuel and these are categorized as high and medium rank coals. The calorific value (CV) is more than 4500 kcal/kg and the water content is less than 30%. As mentioned above, other coal types are low rank coal and most often called as lignite. Since this low rank coal is not economical for exports due to the low CV and high water content, this is now emphasized by Indonesian government to be utilized locally. The fit solution to utilize this low rank coal is with coal gasification technology application.
Gasification is a process where raw fuels are partially oxidized to produce other gaseous combustible products. The primary product of gasification is synthesis gas or syngas, primarily comprising carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Gasification technologies are typically consisting of fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow – slurry feed and entrained flow – dry feed as we know many different technology providers expert in this area such as GE, Shell, Lurgi & Siemens. The syngas quality output is also really depending on the selection of gasification technology.
Black & Veatch is engineering and EPC Contractor has been performing feasibility assessments for gasification, syngas processing and synfuels production. We help select the best technology for specific feed and product requirements. Following technology selection, we provide seamless engineering. We’ve performed studies, assessments and EPC for more than 30 gasification clients. Our experience includes above-ground and underground gasification technologies. In all cases, we listen first. Then we align best-fit technology solutions that match the business need.
In addition, the selection of coal gasification technology is not only considering the coal characteristics, but also the downstream product and application, plant scale and its reliability, the capital investment and also gasification process selection. Black & Veatch has the qualification of know-how in order to meet the client’s strategic business.
Key words: coal gasification, low rank coal, syngas, fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained-flow, engineering, EPC, and gasification technology.
*The 20 pages of technical paper will be presented in front of the Conference of ASEAN Federation of Engineering (CAFEO31) Organization, held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 10 – 14 November 2013.
If you’re interested to contribute a technical paper(s) please submit your abstract to coordinator of technical committee. For further info please visit: www.cafeo-31.com.